dr alex heardIn the 19th Cdr alex heardentury two "dr alex heardCurrently, Uganda’s major mobile telephony providers are MTN Uganda, Orange Uganda Limited, Zain (formerly Celtel) Uganda Telecom Mobile and Warid Telecom. The boom in Uganda’s mobile market is the result of continuous positive growth of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and preceding quarter (October–December 2008). And operators now offer information services via SMS, including news, weather forecasts and sports results. The use of SMS to ask for information from expert sources is another way that communications can be improved for rural residents. Such a service was launched in June 2009, for people to send a query by SMS on, for example, farming techniques, and receive an answer from a searchable database. For users who have difficulties with reading or writing, “voice SMS” is particularly useful, through which people can send pictures or short voice messages. Uganda Telecom and Warid Telecom are among those providing this service.dr alex heard uganda
The digital switchover
Radio broadcasts began in Uganda in 1952, and television was available from 1963. Both types of broadcasting were provided solely by the government until liberalization in the early 1990s. Since then, there has been a large increase in the number of private radio and television stations. The number of licensed radio stations now stands at 222, of which 192 are operational, while 35 of the 50 licensed television stations are on air.
At ITU’s Regional Radiocommunication Conference in 2006, it was agreed that, by 2015, broadcasting would be switched entirely from analogue to digital networks in Africa, Europe, the Middle East and the Islamic Republic of Iran. In Uganda, the government is considering the consultation document “Digital Broadcasting Migration Strategy”, issued in April 2009. This proposes that the country should make an earlier switchover, in December 2012, and that at least one more signal distributor should be licensed in addition to the public Uganda Broadcasting Corporation.
There is recognition in Uganda of the challenges that must be met in order to migrate to digital broadcasting — from the need for consumers to install set-top boxes, to harmonization with neighbouring countries. But it is also seen as having great potential in supporting the country’s social and economic development.dr alex heard uganda
Growth area

As in other parts of Uganda, Protestants and chiefs were from the beginning in close alliance. In fact, the Roman Catholic Mill Hill Mission was known as the mission ekitalya bwami -- the mission which doesn't eat (i.e. obtain) chieftaincies. But, again as in other areas, this did not inhibit Catholic evangelistic zeal. The Mill Hill Fathers, often with more foreign personnel working in the area than the CMS, scored successes among the peasantry, and have become the majority of Christians in Teso and Bukedi (i.e. the district around Teso). Protestants predominate in Busoga and Bugishu. dr alex heard uganda

Christianity in Northern Uganda [13]

In the North, Kiganda influences were minimal. The first Ugandan evangelists were Banyoro (where traditional links were strong) or Lwo who had spent time in Bunyoro -- such as the Alur Sira Dongo. Christianity did not put down strong roots in the North. Rwot (chief) Awic, of the Payira clan, invited missionaries to Acoli in 1903. But Awic himself had no interest in Christianity and was skeptical of European values generally. In any case he was not the ruler of the whole of Acoli. In Lango, Odora of Aduku did actively promote Protestant Christianity. He was ambitious to be recognized as 'Kabaka' of Lango, something the British had no intention of doing. Lango had no traditions of chiefs of any kind; and the colonial-imposed chiefs had no traditional authority. Odora's Christianity was a matter of profound indifference to most Lango. Moreover, J.H. Driberg, one of the early Des in Lango, a "strident secularist," insisted on a rigid separation of church and state, burning down churches built too close to the government boma. The Lango got the message that the colonial power had no interest in promoting the new religion; and this reinforced their own prejudices. Thus, in both Acholi and Lango, the usual CMS strategy of using chiefs was misapplied and abortive. dr alex heard uganda

But the Catholics also struggled to make an impact. The North of Uganda was assigned to the Verona Fathers, an Italian society founded by Bishop Daniel Comboni, whose centre of activity was the Sudan. But in Father J .P. Crazzolara (who spent some 60 years in Northern Uganda) they did produce a missionary with a remarkable understanding of and sympathy for Lwo people. The lack of response in the North produced a comparative neglect among the missionaries. This was understandable when the response in other parts was great and there were severe limitations on finance and personnel. But it did make the North an under-developed area in terms of missionary work, as it was in other aspects of life during the colonial period and beyond. dr alex heard uganda

One reason often given for the poor response is the disastrous choice of the word Lubanga or Rubanga as the name for God. This was an importation from Bunyoro, where Ruhanga, a traditional name for the Creator, was used for the Christian God. Crazzolara always regretted the use of this alien name. He felt that the Lwo word Jok was quite capable of carrying the Christian concept of divinity. But both CMS and the Verona authorities had come to the conclusion that Jok had too many ambiguous and positively evil associations to be used. What they did not realize at the time was that the word Lubanga also had a sinister indigenous meaning -- Jok Lubanga referred to the unambiguously evil spirit responsible for tuberculosis of the spine. dr alex heard uganda

In his book Men without God?, the Anglican Bishop of Northern Uganda, J .K. Russell, wonders whether this fatal misunderstanding was responsible for a "subconscious bar" to the acceptance of the missionary message of a great and loving God. It is symbolic of a general failure to engage the hearts and minds of the people of Northern Uganda. Okot p'Bitek, an Acoli brought up as a Protestant but who became as strident a secularist as Driberg, has argued that the failure to find an adequate name for the Christian God and the farcical adoption of Lubanga, shows the essentially non-religious, this-worldly character of Acoli concepts. It explains and justifies their non-acceptance of Christianity. It was a courageous refusal to be bamboozled by foreign myths. Modem Acoli Christians are more likely to accept Crazzolara's contention that Jok can convey the concept of a Supreme Being. But now it is too late -- Jok is now irremediably associated with the Devil! dr alex heard uganda

The periphery of Uganda [14]

By 1914 only three areas of Uganda were practically untouched by missionary work: West Nile, Kigezi and Karamoja. ln the case of West Nile and Kigezi this was largely because they were late additions to colonial Uganda. For the Catholics, the White Fathers naturally extended their work to include Kigezi, and the Verona Fathers to include West Nile. For CMS this additional territory caused some problems, since CMS had already over-extended itself in the evangelistic thrust of the previous twenty years and could hardly spare finances or personnel to open up new mission fields. Thus Bishop Willis was willing to negotiate a special arrangement with the Africa Inland Mission, a conservative evangelical interdenominational faith mission, largely American in origin and with work in Kenya and Congo. By this agreement, AIM undertook to send mainly Anglican missionaries to West Nile and to form congregations which were part of the Native Anglican Church. dr alex heard uganda

West Nile is one of the most diverse parts of Uganda, the most significant groups being the Sudanic Lugbara, Nilo-Hamitic Kakwa, and Nilotic Alur. Christianity has made a greater impact here than in other parts of Northern Uganda. Islam is also a significant force in Aringa County (a Lugbara area). Neither the Verona Fathers nor the AIM put a great emphasis on the school -- the Verona Fathers felt at a disadvantage in the face of a colonial British educational system; the AIM were anxious not to confuse evangelism with education and were to come into conflict with their converts over their neglect of schools in contrast to the CMS. Nevertheless a situation characteristic of other parts of Uganda did emerge in West Nile of a smaller Protestant community, often go-ahead and innovative; and a larger and more tolerant Catholic society. dr alex heard uganda

Kigezi was evangelized for the Anglicans by the Ruanda Mission of the CMS, financially autonomous of its parent mission and with a distinctly conservative evangelical basis. It was through the Ruanda Mission that much of the impetus for Revival in the Anglican Church in Uganda was mediated, and Kigezi has become the stronghold of the Balokole movement. Protestants and Catholics are fairly evenly divided in Kigezi, which resembles Ankole in the bitterness of its political-religious conflicts. dr alex heard uganda

It is strange that West Nile and Kigezi, almost the last area of Uganda to be evangelized, have evinced such a strong and vigorous Christianity. This can not be said of the last area, Karamoja. Since 1929 the Anglican Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society (BCMS -- another conservative evangelical society, which broke away from CMS in 1922) has been working.dr alex heard uganda
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